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40hz; 432hz; 528hz; Binaural; Which Sound Frequencies Provide Health Benefits?


Music has been shown to affect testosterone, estrogen, and the stress hormone cortisol positively, and has been postulated to promote brain protective effects(1). Vibrational research highlights that positive neuronal effects can occur from that of nitric oxide(2hz, 47hz, 50hz) and GABA neurotransmitter(20hz) increases(2).


40hz frequency is one of the most researched and promising for sound, tactile, and light stimulation. It has a significant pool of animal and human studies showing improved sleep patterns, memory, Alzheimer’s Disease symptoms (AD), and AD pathology including amyloid plaque reduction(2,3,4,5). It has also activated the vagus nerve which has a calming effect, reducing heart rate and blood pressure(2). The GENUS devices use these frequencies and are currently in development to be marketed as AD treatments(5). Preliminary research has used this frequency from a few minutes to up to an hour per day for 3-4 months in humans without serious adverse events(5).

Binaural Beats

Binaural beat phenomena occur when two slightly different frequency sounds are played, one into each ear(6). There have been significant studies demonstrating that binaural beats can improve anxiety and pain perception, while also affecting cognition(6).

Smaller studies have given insights using EEG measurements into specific brain regions affected by different frequencies. 6hz enhanced activity in all brain areas within 10 minutes of exposure, 40 hz enhanced frontal lobe activation, 10hz activated the right hemisphere in 25 minutes. 3 hz and 15 hz acted on the left hemispheres within 15 and 5 minutes(7).


Human studies comprising hundreds of subjects have demonstrated that 432hz sound frequencies are superior to competitors for reducing anxiety, stress, and heart rate(8,9,10).


528 hz frequencies have been tested in smaller samples of rats and humans. It decreased anxiety associated behaviors correlating with higher testosterone levels in rats(11), while decreasing anxiety in humans compared to its competitor(12).

High Frequency

Some high frequency sounds are not within reach of human hearing ability. More research is needed in this area, however one study showed enhanced human experience from high frequency sounds, if played when other music is also playing(13).

By: Evan Redmond, Pharm.D.

Reviewed by: Jon Pehrson, M.D.


1. Fukui H, Toyoshima K. Music facilitate the neurogenesis, regeneration and repair of neurons. Med Hypotheses. 2008 Nov;71(5):765-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2008.06.019. Epub 2008 Aug 8. PMID: 18692321.

2. Bartel L, Mosabbir A. Possible Mechanisms for the Effects of Sound Vibration on Human Health. Healthcare (Basel). 2021 May 18;9(5):597. doi: 10.3390/healthcare9050597. PMID: 34069792; PMCID: PMC8157227.

3. Anthony J. Martorell, Abigail L. Paulson, Ho-Jun Suk, Fatema Abdurrob, Gabrielle T. Drummond, Webster Guan, Jennie Z. Young, David Nam-Woo Kim, Oleg Kritskiy, Scarlett J. Barker, Vamsi Mangena, Stephanie M. Prince, Emery N. Brown, Kwanghun Chung, Edward S. Boyden, Annabelle C. Singer, Li-Huei Tsai, Multi-sensory Gamma Stimulation Ameliorates Alzheimer’s-Associated Pathology and Improves Cognition, Cell, Volume 177, Issue 2, 2019, Pages 256-271.e22, ISSN 0092-8674, (

4. Chan D, Suk HJ, Jackson BL, Milman NP, Stark D, Klerman EB, Kitchener E, Fernandez Avalos VS, de Weck G, Banerjee A, Beach SD, Blanchard J, Stearns C, Boes AD, Uitermarkt B, Gander P, Howard M 3rd, Sternberg EJ, Nieto-Castanon A, Anteraper S, Whitfield-Gabrieli S, Brown EN, Boyden ES, Dickerson BC, Tsai LH. Gamma frequency sensory stimulation in mild probable Alzheimer's dementia patients: Results of feasibility and pilot studies. PLoS One. 2022 Dec 1;17(12):e0278412. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0278412. PMID: 36454969; PMCID: PMC9714926.


6. Garcia-Argibay M, Santed MA, Reales JM. Efficacy of binaural auditory beats in cognition, anxiety, and pain perception: a meta-analysis. Psychol Res. 2019 Mar;83(2):357-372. doi: 10.1007/s00426-018-1066-8. Epub 2018 Aug 2. PMID: 30073406.

7. Jirakittayakorn N, Wongsawat Y. The brain responses to different frequencies of binaural beat sounds on QEEG at cortical level. Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2015;2015:4687-91. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2015.7319440. PMID: 26737340.

8. Menziletoglu D, Guler AY, Cayır T, Isik BK. Binaural beats or 432 Hz music? which method is more effective for reducing preoperative dental anxiety? Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2021 Jan 1;26(1):e97-e101. doi: 10.4317/medoral.24051. PMID: 33247575; PMCID: PMC7806348.

9. Calamassi D, Pomponi GP. Music Tuned to 440 Hz Versus 432 Hz and the Health Effects: A Double-blind Cross-over Pilot Study. Explore (NY). 2019 Jul-Aug;15(4):283-290. doi: 10.1016/j.explore.2019.04.001. Epub 2019 Apr 6. Erratum in: Explore (NY). 2020 Jan - Feb;16(1):8. PMID: 31031095.

10. Calamassi D, Li Vigni ML, Fumagalli C, Gheri F, Pomponi GP, Bambi S. The Listening to music tuned to 440 Hz versus 432 Hz to reduce anxiety and stress in emergency nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic: a double-blind, randomized controlled pilot study. Acta Biomed. 2022 May 12;93(S2):e2022149. doi: 10.23750/abm.v93iS2.12915. PMID: 35545982; PMCID: PMC9534204.

11. Babayi Daylari T, Riazi GH, Pooyan S, Fathi E, Hedayati Katouli F. Influence of various intensities of 528 Hz sound-wave in production of testosterone in rat's brain and analysis of behavioral changes. Genes Genomics. 2019 Feb;41(2):201-211. doi: 10.1007/s13258-018-0753-6. Epub 2018 Nov 9. PMID: 30414050.

12. Akimoto, K. , Hu, A. , Yamaguchi, T. and Kobayashi, H. (2018) Effect of 528 Hz Music on the Endocrine System and Autonomic Nervous System. Health, 10, 1159-1170. doi:

13. Inaudible High-Frequency Sounds Affect Brain Activity: Hypersonic Effect Tsutomu Oohashi, Emi Nishina, Manabu Honda, Yoshiharu Yonekura, Yoshitaka Fuwamoto, Norie Kawai, Tadao Maekawa, Satoshi Nakamura, Hidenao Fukuyama, andHiroshi Shibasaki 01 JUN 2000

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