facebook
Subscribe50$/product give away!


Submit an Article to Pharmacy HQ     
Please include the author's name, title, and citations.     
Cervical Cancer


General Information (Symptoms and Diagnosis)

Treatment


The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus (the organ where a fetus grows). The cervix leads from the uterus to the vagina (birth canal).

The main types of cervical cancer are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma begins in the thin, flat cells that line the cervix. Adenocarcinoma begins in cervical cells that make mucus and other fluids.

Long-lasting infections with certain types of human papillomavirus (HPV) cause almost all cases of cervical cancer. Vaccines that protect against infection with these types of HPV can greatly reduce the risk of cervical cancer. Having a Pap test to check for abnormal cells in the cervix or a test to check for HPV can find cells that may become cervical cancer. These cells can be treated before cancer forms.

Cervical cancer can usually be cured if it is found and treated in the early stages.

General Information About Cervical Cancer

Key Points

  • Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the cervix.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for cervical cancer.
  • There are usually no signs or symptoms of early cervical cancer but it can be detected early with regular check-ups.
  • Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain.
  • Tests that examine the cervix are used to detect (find) and diagnose cervical cancer.
  • Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.

Cervical cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the cervix.

The cervix is the lower, narrow end of the uterus (the hollow, pear-shaped organ where a fetus grows). The cervix leads from the uterus to the vagina (birth canal).

Anatomy of the female reproductive system. The organs in the female reproductive system include the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, cervix, and vagina. The uterus has a muscular outer layer called the myometrium and an inner lining called the endometrium.

Cervical cancer usually develops slowly over time. Before cancer appears in the cervix, the cells of the cervix go through changes known as dysplasia, in which abnormal cells begin to appear in the cervical tissue. Over time, the abnormal cells may become cancer cells and start to grow and spread more deeply into the cervix and to surrounding areas.

Cervical cancer in children is rare.

See the following PDQ summaries for more information about cervical cancer:

  • Cervical Cancer Prevention
  • Cervical Cancer Screening
  • Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment

Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the major risk factor for cervical cancer.

Anything that increases your chance of getting a disease is called a risk factor. Having a risk factor does not mean that you will get cancer; not having risk factors doesn't mean that you will not get cancer. Talk to your doctor if you think you may be at risk for cervical cancer.

Risk factors for cervical cancer include the following:

  • Being infected with human papillomavirus (HPV). This is the most important risk factor for cervical cancer.
  • Being exposed to the drug DES (diethylstilbestrol) while in the mother's womb.

In women who are infected with HPV, the following risk factors add to the increased risk of cervical cancer:

  • Giving birth to many children.
  • Smoking cigarettes.
  • Using oral contraceptives ("the Pill") for a long time.

There are also risk factors that increase the risk of HPV infection:

  • Having a weakened immune system caused by immunosuppression. Immunosuppression weakens the body's ability to fight infections and other diseases. The body's ability to fight HPV infection may be lowered by long-term immunosuppression from:
    • being infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
    • taking medicine to help prevent organ rejection after a transplant.
  • Being sexually active at a young age.
  • Having many sexual partners.

Older age is a main risk factor for most cancers. The chance of getting cancer increases as you get older.

There are usually no signs or symptoms of early cervical cancer but it can be detected early with regular check-ups.

Early cervical cancer may not cause signs or symptoms. Women should have regular check-ups, including tests to check for human papillomavirus (HPV) or abnormal cells in the cervix. The prognosis (chance of recovery) is better when the cancer is found early.

Signs and symptoms of cervical cancer include vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain.

These and other signs and symptoms may be caused by cervical cancer or by other conditions. Check with your doctor if you have any of the following:

  • Vaginal bleeding (including bleeding after sexual intercourse).
  • Unusual vaginal discharge.
  • Pelvic pain.
  • Pain during sexual intercourse.

Tests that examine the cervix are used to detect (find) and diagnose cervical cancer.

The following procedures may be used:

  • Physical exam and history : An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient's health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
  • Pelvic exam : An exam of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and rectum. A speculum is inserted into the vagina and the doctor or nurse looks at the vagina and cervix for signs of disease. A Pap test of the cervix is usually done. The doctor or nurse also inserts one or two lubricated, gloved fingers of one hand into the vagina and places the other hand over the lower abdomen to feel the size, shape, and position of the uterus and ovaries. The doctor or nurse also inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the rectum to feel for lumps or abnormal areas.
    Pelvic exam. A doctor or nurse inserts one or two lubricated, gloved fingers of one hand into the vagina and presses on the lower abdomen with the other hand. This is done to feel the size, shape, and position of the uterus and ovaries. The vagina, cervix, fallopian tubes, and rectum are also checked.
  • Pap test: A procedure to collect cells from the surface of the cervix and vagina. A piece of cotton, a brush, or a small wooden stick is used to gently scrape cells from the cervix and vagina. The cells are viewed under a microscope to find out if they are abnormal. This procedure is also called a Pap smear.
    Pap test. A speculum is inserted into the vagina to widen it. Then, a brush is inserted into the vagina to collect cells from the cervix. The cells are checked under a microscope for signs of disease.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) test : A laboratory test used to check DNA or RNA for certain types of HPV infection. Cells are collected from the cervix and DNA or RNA from the cells is checked to find out if an infection is caused by a type of HPV that is linked to cervical cancer. This test may be done using the sample of cells removed during a Pap test. This test may also be done if the results of a Pap test show certain abnormal cervical cells.
  • Endocervical curettage : A procedure to collect cells or tissue from the cervical canal using a curette (spoon-shaped instrument). Tissue samples are taken and checked under a microscope for signs of cancer. This procedure is sometimes done at the same time as a colposcopy.
  • Colposcopy: A procedure in which a colposcope (a lighted, magnifying instrument) is used to check the vagina and cervix for abnormal areas. Tissue samples may be taken using a curette (spoon-shaped instrument) or a brush and checked under a microscope for signs of disease.
  • Biopsy : If abnormal cells are found in a Pap test, the doctor may do a biopsy. A sample of tissue is cut from the cervix and viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. A biopsy that removes only a small amount of tissue is usually done in the doctor's office. A woman may need to go to a hospital for a cervical cone biopsy (removal of a larger, cone-shaped sample of cervical tissue).

Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options.

The prognosis (chance of recovery) depends on the following:

  • The stage of the cancer (the size of the tumor and whether it affects part of the cervix or the whole cervix, or has spread to the lymph nodes or other places in the body).
  • The type of cervical cancer.
  • The patient's age and general health.
  • Whether the patient has a certain type of human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • Whether the patient has human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
  • Whether the cancer has just been diagnosed or has recurred (come back).

Treatment options depend on the following:

  • The stage of the cancer.
  • The type of cervical cancer.
  • The patient's desire to have children.
  • The patient's age.

Treatment of cervical cancer during pregnancy depends on the stage of the cancer and the stage of the pregnancy. For cervical cancer found early or for cancer found during the last trimester of pregnancy, treatment may be delayed until after the baby is born. For more information, see the section on Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy. 

Recurrent Cervical Cancer

Recurrent cervical cancer is cancer that has recurred (come back) after it has been treated. The cancer may come back in the cervix or in other parts of the body.

Treatment Option Overview

Key Points

  • There are different types of treatment for patients with cervical cancer.
  • Four types of standard treatment are used:
    • Surgery
    • Radiation therapy
    • Chemotherapy
    • Targeted therapy
  • New types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials.
  • Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial.
  • Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment.
  • Follow-up tests may be needed.

There are different types of treatment for patients with cervical cancer.

Different types of treatment are available for patients with cervical cancer. Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), and some are being tested in clinical trials. A treatment clinical trial is a research study meant to help improve current treatments or obtain information on new treatments for patients with cancer. When clinical trials show that a new treatment is better than the standard treatment, the new treatment may become the standard treatment. Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial. Some clinical trials are open only to patients who have not started treatment.

Four types of standard treatment are used:

Surgery

Surgery (removing the cancer in an operation) is sometimes used to treat cervical cancer. The following surgical procedures may be used:

  • Conization: A procedure to remove a cone-shaped piece of tissue from the cervix and cervical canal. A pathologist views the tissue under a microscope to look for cancer cells. Conization may be used to diagnose or treat a cervical condition. This procedure is also called a cone biopsy.

    Conization may be done using one of the following procedures:

    • Cold-knife conization: A surgical procedure that uses a scalpel (sharp knife) to remove abnormal tissue or cancer.
    • Loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP): A surgical procedure that uses electrical current passed through a thin wire loop as a knife to remove abnormal tissue or cancer.
    • Laser surgery: A surgical procedure that uses a laser beam (a narrow beam of intense light) as a knife to make bloodless cuts in tissue or to remove a surface lesion such as a tumor.

    The type of conization procedure used depends on where the cancer cells are in the cervix and the type of cervical cancer.

  • Total hysterectomy: Surgery to remove the uterus, including the cervix. If the uterus and cervix are taken out through the vagina, the operation is called a vaginal hysterectomy. If the uterus and cervix are taken out through a large incision (cut) in the abdomen, the operation is called a total abdominal hysterectomy. If the uterus and cervix are taken out through a small incision in the abdomen using a laparoscope, the operation is called a total laparoscopic hysterectomy.
    Hysterectomy. The uterus is surgically removed with or without other organs or tissues. In a total hysterectomy, the uterus and cervix are removed. In a total hysterectomy with salpingo-oophorectomy, (a) the uterus plus one (unilateral) ovary and fallopian tube are removed; or (b) the uterus plus both (bilateral) ovaries and fallopian tubes are removed. In a radical hysterectomy, the uterus, cervix, both ovaries, both fallopian tubes, and nearby tissue are removed. These procedures are done using a low transverse incision or a vertical incision.
  • Radical hysterectomy: Surgery to remove the uterus, cervix, part of the vagina, and a wide area of ligaments and tissues around these organs. The ovaries, fallopian tubes, or nearby lymph nodes may also be removed.
  • Modified radical hysterectomy: Surgery to remove the uterus, cervix, upper part of the vagina, and ligaments and tissues that closely surround these organs. Nearby lymph nodes may also be removed. In this type of surgery, not as many tissues and/or organs are removed as in a radical hysterectomy.
  • Radical trachelectomy: Surgery to remove the cervix, nearby tissue and lymph nodes, and the upper part of the vagina. The uterus and ovaries are not removed.
  • Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy: Surgery to remove both ovaries and both fallopian tubes.
  • Pelvic exenteration: Surgery to remove the lower colon, rectum, and bladder. The cervix, vagina, ovaries, and nearby lymph nodes are also removed. Artificial openings (stoma) are made for urine and stool to flow from the body to a collection bag. Plastic surgery may be needed to make an artificial vagina after this operation.

Radiation therapy

Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment that uses high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation to kill cancer cells or keep them from growing. There are two types of radiation therapy:

  • External radiation therapy uses a machine outside the body to send radiation toward the cancer. Certain ways of giving radiation therapy can help keep radiation from damaging nearby healthy tissue. This type of radiation therapy includes the following:
    • Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT): IMRT is a type of 3-dimensional (3-D) radiation therapy that uses a computer to make pictures of the size and shape of the tumor. Thin beams of radiation of different intensities (strengths) are aimed at the tumor from many angles. This type of external radiation therapy causes less damage to nearby healthy tissue.
  • Internal radiation therapy uses a radioactive substance sealed in needles, seeds, wires, or catheters that are placed directly into or near the cancer.

The way the radiation therapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated. External and internal radiation therapy are used to treat cervical cancer, and may also be used as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a cancer treatment that uses drugs to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. When chemotherapy is taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle, the drugs enter the bloodstream and can reach cancer cells throughout the body (systemic chemotherapy). When chemotherapy is placed directly into the cerebrospinal fluid, an organ, or a body cavity such as the abdomen, the drugs mainly affect cancer cells in those areas (regional chemotherapy). The way the chemotherapy is given depends on the type and stage of the cancer being treated.

See Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer for more information.

Targeted therapy

Targeted therapy is a type of treatment that uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack specific cancer cells without harming normal cells.

Monoclonal antibody therapy is a type of targeted therapy that uses antibodies made in the laboratory from a single type of immune system cell. These antibodies can identify substances on cancer cells or normal substances that may help cancer cells grow. The antibodies attach to the substances and kill the cancer cells, block their growth, or keep them from spreading. Monoclonal antibodies are given by infusion. They may be used alone or to carry drugs, toxins, or radioactive material directly to cancer cells.

Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to a protein called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and may prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. Bevacizumab is used to treat cervical cancer that has metastasized (spread to other parts of the body) and recurrent cervical cancer.

See Drugs Approved for Cervical Cancer for more information.

New types of treatment are being tested in clinical trials.

Information about clinical trials is available from the NCI website.

Patients may want to think about taking part in a clinical trial.

For some patients, taking part in a clinical trial may be the best treatment choice. Clinical trials are part of the cancer research process. Clinical trials are done to find out if new cancer treatments are safe and effective or better than the standard treatment.

Many of today's standard treatments for cancer are based on earlier clinical trials. Patients who take part in a clinical trial may receive the standard treatment or be among the first to receive a new treatment.

Patients who take part in clinical trials also help improve the way cancer will be treated in the future. Even when clinical trials do not lead to effective new treatments, they often answer important questions and help move research forward.

Patients can enter clinical trials before, during, or after starting their cancer treatment.

Some clinical trials only include patients who have not yet received treatment. Other trials test treatments for patients whose cancer has not gotten better. There are also clinical trials that test new ways to stop cancer from recurring (coming back) or reduce the side effects of cancer treatment.

Clinical trials are taking place in many parts of the country. See the Treatment Options section that follows for links to current treatment clinical trials. These have been retrieved from NCI's listing of clinical trials.

Follow-up tests may be needed.

Some of the tests that were done to diagnose the cancer or to find out the stage of the cancer may be repeated. Some tests will be repeated in order to see how well the treatment is working. Decisions about whether to continue, change, or stop treatment may be based on the results of these tests.

Some of the tests will continue to be done from time to time after treatment has ended. The results of these tests can show if your condition has changed or if the cancer has recurred (come back). These tests are sometimes called follow-up tests or check-ups.

Your doctor will ask if you have any of the following signs or symptoms, which may mean the cancer has come back:

  • Pain in the abdomen, back, or leg.
  • Swelling in the leg.
  • Trouble urinating.
  • Cough.
  • Feeling tired.

For cervical cancer, follow-up tests are usually done every 3 to 4 months for the first 2 years, followed by check-ups every 6 months. The check-up includes a current health history and exam of the body to check for signs and symptoms of recurrent cervical cancer and for late effects of treatment.

Treatment Options by Stage

Carcinoma in Situ (Stage 0)

Treatment of carcinoma in situ (stage 0) may include the following:

  • Conization, such as cold-knife conization, loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), or laser surgery.
  • Hysterectomy for women who cannot or no longer want to have children. This is done only if the tumor cannot be completely removed by conization.
  • Internal radiation therapy for women who cannot have surgery.

Check the list of NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage 0 cervical cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your doctor about clinical trials that may be right for you. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI website.

Stage IA Cervical Cancer

Stage IA cervical cancer is separated into stage IA1 and IA2.

Treatment for stage IA1 may include the following:

  • Conization.
  • Total hysterectomy with or without bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy.

Treatment for stage IA2 may include the following:

  • Modified radical hysterectomy and removal of lymph nodes.
  • Radical trachelectomy.
  • Internal radiation therapy for women who cannot have surgery.

Check the list of NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage IA cervical cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your doctor about clinical trials that may be right for you. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI website.

Stages IB and IIA Cervical Cancer

Treatment of stage IB and stage IIA cervical cancer may include the following:

  • Radiation therapy with chemotherapy given at the same time.
  • Radical hysterectomy and removal of pelvic lymph nodes with or without radiation therapy to the pelvis, plus chemotherapy.
  • Radical trachelectomy.
  • Chemotherapy followed by surgery.
  • Radiation therapy alone.

Check the list of NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage IB cervical cancer and stage IIA cervical cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your doctor about clinical trials that may be right for you. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI website.

Stages IIB, III, and IVA Cervical Cancer

Treatment of stage IIB, stage III, and stage IVA cervical cancer may include the following:

  • Radiation therapy with chemotherapy given at the same time.
  • Surgery to remove pelvic lymph nodes followed by radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy.
  • Internal radiation therapy.
  • A clinical trial of chemotherapy to shrink the tumor followed by surgery.
  • A clinical trial of chemotherapy and radiation therapy given at the same time, followed by chemotherapy.

Check the list of NCI-supported cancer clinical trials that are now accepting patients with stage IIB cervical cancer, stage III cervical cancer and stage IVA cervical cancer. For more specific results, refine the search by using other search features, such as the location of the trial, the type of treatment, or the name of the drug. Talk with your doctor about clinical trials that may be right for you. General information about clinical trials is available from the NCI website.

Stage IVB Cervical Cancer

Treatment of stage IVB cervical cancer may include the following:

Treatment Options for Recurrent Cervical Cancer

Treatment of recurrent cervical cancer may include the following:

  • Radiation therapy and chemotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy and targeted therapy.
  • Chemotherapy as palliative therapy to relieve symptoms caused by the cancer and improve quality of life.
  • Pelvic exenteration.
  • Clinical trials of new anticancer drugs or drug combinations.

Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy

  • General Information About Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy
  • Treatment Options for Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy
    • Carcinoma in Situ (Stage 0) During Pregnancy
    • Stage I Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy
    • Stage II, III, and IV Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy

General Information About Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy

Treatment of cervical cancer during pregnancy depends on the stage of the cancer and how long the patient has been pregnant. A biopsy and imaging tests may be done to determine the stage of the disease. To avoid exposing the fetus to radiation, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) is used.

Treatment Options for Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy

Carcinoma in Situ (Stage 0) During Pregnancy

Usually, no treatment is needed for carcinoma in situ (stage 0) during pregnancy. A colposcopy may be done to check for invasive cancer.

Stage I Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy

Pregnant women with slow-growing stage I cervical cancer may be able to delay treatment until the second trimester of pregnancy or after delivery.

Pregnant women with fast-growing stage I cervical cancer may need immediate treatment. Treatment may include:

  • Conization.
  • Radical trachelectomy.

Women should be tested to find out if the cancer has spread to the lymph nodes. If cancer has spread to the lymph nodes, immediate treatment may be needed.

Stage II, III, and IV Cervical Cancer During Pregnancy

Treatment for stage II, stage III, and stage IV cervical cancer during pregnancy may include the following:

  • Chemotherapy to shrink the tumor in the second or third trimester of pregnancy. Surgery or radiation therapy may be done after delivery.
  • Radiation therapy plus chemotherapy. Talk with your doctor about the effects of radiation on the fetus. It may be necessary to end the pregnancy before treatment begins.

-NIH



Your use of this website constitutes your agreement to the terms and conditions linked below:
Terms and Conditions | Resources
2017 © Copyright PharmacyHQ.com. Questions?
Please contact: pharmacyhq.mail@gmail.com